# Embedded atom method potentials¶

There is a host of different embedding type potential formats
including the embedded atom method (EAM) [DawBas84], the glue
potential [ErcTosPar86], the effective medium theory (EMT)
[PusNieMan81], [Nor82], and the Finnis-Sinclair (FS) form
[FinSin84]. The total energy for these *pair functionals* can be
written in the general form

where

The various original formats differ with respect to the functional forms chosen for \(V\), \(F\), and \(\rho\). In the present implementation it is possible to compose functional forms using a math parser. This allows one not only to replicate any of the original forms but to define practically arbitrary functional forms. This is demonstrated by the construction of an EAM potential with user defined functions, which employs the functional form from [MisMehPap01], as well as in the example, in which a simple EAM potential for aluminum is fitted.

Note

By omitting the embedding term, the EAM potential form can be used to fit arbitrary pair potentials.

The following code block illustrates the definition of a rather simple
functional form. The two main subelements of the `<eam>`

block are
`<mapping>`

and `<functions>`

. The `<functions>`

block
comprises the definitions of the various functions and parameters,
which is described in detail in the section on the specification of
functional forms <function_definition>. Each function defined has to
be assigned an id using the id attribute. The id is used in the
`<mapping>`

block to attach the functions to certain types of
interaction (pair potential `V`

and electron density `rho`

) or
atom type (embedding function `F`

).

```
<eam id="Al" species-a="*" species-b="*">
<export-eam-file resolution='500' rho-range-factor='2.0'>output.eam.fs</export-eam-file>
<mapping>
<pair-interaction species-a="*" species-b="*" function="V" />
<electron-density species-a="*" species-b="*" function="rho" />
<embedding-energy species-"*" function="F" />
</mapping>
<functions>
<user-function id="V">
<input-var>r</input-var>
<expression> A*exp(-lambda*r) </expression>
<derivative> -lambda*A*exp(-lambda*r) </derivative>
<param name="A">500</param>
<param name="lambda">2.73</param>
<fit-dof> <A/> <lambda/> </fit-dof>
<screening>
<user-function id="V_screening">
<cutoff>6.5</cutoff>
<input-var>r</input-var>
<expression>
1 - 1/(1 + ((r - cutoff) / h)^4)
</expression>
<derivative>
4 * h^4 * (r - cutoff)^3 / ((h^4 + (r - cutoff)^4)^2)
</derivative>
<param name="h">3</param>
</user-function>
</screening>
</user-function>
<user-function id="rho">
<input-var>r</input-var>
<expression> exp(-twomu*r) </expression>
<derivative> -twomu*exp(-twomu*r) </derivative>
<param name="twomu">1.14</param>
<fit-dof> <twomu/> </fit-dof>
<screening>
<user-function id="rho_screening">
<cutoff>6.5</cutoff>
<input-var>r</input-var>
<expression>
1 - 1/(1 + ((r - cutoff) / h)^4)
</expression>
<derivative>
4 * h^4 * (r - cutoff)^3 / ((h^4 + (r - cutoff)^4)^2)
</derivative>
<param name="h">3</param>
</user-function>
</screening>
</user-function>
<user-function id="F">
<input-var>rho</input-var>
<expression> -D*sqrt(rho) </expression>
<derivative> -D/(2*sqrt(rho)) </derivative>
<param name="D">8</param>
<fit-dof> <D/> </fit-dof>
</user-function>
</functions>
</eam>
```

Elements and attributes

`<mapping>`

: This block defines the mapping of the functions defined in the`<functions>`

block onto different atom types and pairs of atom types.`<pair-interaction>`

: Assign a pair interaction using the attributes`species-a`

and`species-b`

to specify the atom types involved and the`function`

attribute to specify the id of the function. The function id has to match exactly one of the functions defined in the`<functions>`

block.`<electron-density>`

: Assign an electron density function using the attributes`species-a`

and`species-b`

to specify the atom types involved and the`function`

attribute to specify the id of the function. The function id has to match exactly one of the functions defined in the`<functions>`

block.`<embedding-energy>`

: Assign an embedding function using the attribute`species`

to specify the atom type involved and the`function`

attribute to specify the id of the function. The function id has to match exactly one of the functions defined in the`<functions>`

block.

`<functions>`

: This block comprises the definitions of the various functions and parameters. The definition of a function is described here. Each function defined has to be assigned an id using the`id`

attribute. The id is used in the`<mapping>`

block to attach a function to a certain type of interaction (pair potential and electron density) or atom type (embedding function).`<export-eam-file>`

(optional): Name of file, to which the tabulated functions of the EAM potential are being written. The resulting file is in the Lammps ‘eam/fs’ format and will include tabulated function data for all elements which have at least an embedding function defined and their pairwise combinations. The resolution of the generated function tables can be adjusted with the optional`resolution`

attribute (default value: 500). The range of the embedding energy function to be tabulated and exported is automatically determined by finding the maximum electron density occurring in any of the structures of the current fit job. This maximum electron density is multiplied by an additional margin factor to determine the export range. The factor, which is 2.0 by default, can be overwritten by specifying the optional`rho-range-factor`

attribute. Note that masses and atomic numbers, which are written to the EAM file, must be specified in the`<species>`

elements of the job’s`<atom-types>`

list. [Default: no file is written].

Further information

More detailed information can be found in [StoZar80], [PusNieMan81], [Nor82], [FinSin84], [DawBas83], [DawBas84], [FoiBasDaw86], [DawFoiBas93], [ErcTosPar86], [MisMehPap01].